Home Cornea


The cornea is the eye's outermost layer (the black part of the eye). It is a clear glass dome-shaped surface that covers the front part of the eye.

Cornea should be transparent to refract light and all the layers must be free of any cloudy or opaque areas to see well. The cornea acts as eyes outermost lens .It functions like a window that controls and focuses the entry of light into the eye and it contributes 60 to 70 percent of the eyes total focusing power.

The cornea and lens focus the light rays to fall precisely on the retina. Retina converts the light rays into impulses that are sent to the brain through the optic nerve and are finally interpreted as images.

The refractive process is similar to the way a camera takes a picture. The cornea and lens in the eye act as the camera lens. The retina is similar to the film. If image is not focussed properly due to any opacity in cornea the film (retina) receives a blurry image.

Common corneal diseases

Glaucoma is the second largest cause of blindness in India.

Dry eye

Corneal infections

Corneal injuries

Corneal dystrophy


1.Dry Eye

Dry eyes syndrome occurs when the eye produces fewer or poorer quality tears and is used to maintain normal eye lubrication. It can also occur when the lacrimal glands are damaged, or when tears evaporate more rapidly than normal.

Symptoms: Patient may have stinging, burning, pain, grittiness, ulcers or scars over the cornea, loss of vision

Causes: Frequent usage of computers because of infrequent blinking ,As a side effect of some medications, skin diseases in and around the eyelids, meibomian gland dysfunction, can occur in pregnant women, after Lasik, Chemical or thermal burns, Autoimmune disorders, contact lens wearers.

Treatment: To treat the underlying condition, artificial teardrops, gels, Immunosuppressives (cyclosporine)

2.Corneal Infections

Common Corneal infections are categorized as Bacterial, Viral, Fungal Corneal ulcers and Keratitis. The patient may have pain or blurry vision or both. Minor infections can be treated with antibacterial, antifungal drops severe cases may require oral therapy also and requires frequent follow-ups with the ophthalmologist.

Herpes Zoster Keratitis

HSV Keratitis

Corneal Ulcer

3. Corneal Injuries

4. Corneal Dystrophies

5. Keratoconus

Keratoconus is a degenerative disorder of the eye in which structural changes within the cornea cause it to thin and change to a more conical shape than its normal gradual curve.

Corneal transplant

Corneal ring segment inserts


Radial keratotomy

Mini asymmetric radial keratotomy

DALK transplants


Rishab Eye Center